
Physics Reference Tables
Greek Alphabet used as variables or symbols
Many letters represent specific values or measurements
Use in Physics 
Capital 
Name 
Lower Case 
Use in Physics 

Α 
Alpha 
α 
angle 

Β 
Beta 
β 
angle 
torque 
Γ 
Gamma 
γ 
E/mc^{2}, angle 
change 
Δ 
Delta 
δ 
small change 

Ε 
Epsilon 
ε 
electromotive force 

Ζ 
Zeta 
ζ 


Η 
Eta 
η 
index of refraction 
angle 
Θ 
Theta 
θ 
most common symbol for angle 

Ι 
Iota 
ι 
rarely used looks too much like i 

Κ 
Kappa 
κ 

rate, lambda baryon 
Λ 
Lambda 
λ 
wavelength, rate 

Μ 
Mu 
μ 
coefficient of friction, muon, micro 

Ν 
Nu 
ν 
frequency, nutrino 
charmed baryon 
Ξ 
Xi 
ξ 


Ο 
Omicron 
ο 
rarely used looks like 0 
product operator 
Π 
Pi 
π 
Hello! Pi! also a pion 

Ρ 
Rho 
ρ 
density, resistivity 
sum of 
Σ 
Sigma 
σ 
conductivity, cross section, area density 

Τ 
Tau 
τ 
mean lifetime, tau lepton 

Υ 
Upsilon 
υ 
rearely used look slike v 
wave function, angle 
Φ 
Phi 
φ 
wave function, angle 

Χ 
Chi 
χ 

wave function 
Ψ 
Psi 
ψ 
wave function 

Ω 
Omega 
ω 
angular frequency 


Alphabet used as variables or symbols
Use in Physics 
Capital 
Lower Case 
Use in Physics 
atomic mass 
A 
a 
acceleration 
magnetic flux density, binding energy 
B 
b 

capacitance 
C 
c 
speed of light in a vaccuum 
electric displacement 
D 
d 
distance 
energy, electric field strength 
E 
e 
eccentricity 
force 
F 
f 
friction 
universal gravitational constant 
G 
g 
acceleration due to gravity, gravitational field strength 
magnetic field strength 
H 
h 
Plank's constant 
electric current, moment of inertia 
I 
i 
initial value, imaginary number 
current density 
J 
j 
impulse 
kinetic energy 
K 
k 
spring constant 
luminosity, inductance 
L 
l 
length 
magnetization, moment 
M 
m 
mass 
normal vector, atomis number 
N 
n 
number, refraction index 
not used looks too much like zero 
O 
o 
not used looks too much like zero 
power, pressure, polarization 
P 
p 
momentum 
heat 
Q 
q 
charge 
resistance, radiancy 
R 
r 
distance (radius), position 

S 
s 
arc length 
temperature 
T 
t 
time 
potential energy 
U 
u 
relativistic mass, energy density 
voltage, potential 
V 
v 
velocity 

W 
w 
weight 

X 
x 
position 

Y 
y 

impedance, proton number 
Z 
z 
red shift 




